International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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Original Research Articles                      Volume : 7, Issue:4, April, 2018

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : /
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2018.7(4): 2444-2462

Ilarviruses and the Importance of Certified Elite Planting Material in Apple Production System - An Overview
Shelly Kapoor1, Abhilasha Sharma2, Bunty Shylla3 and Anil Handa2*
1Department of Biotechnology
2Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni- 173230, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India
3Horticulture Research & Training Station and KVK, Kandaghat, Himachal Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author

A wide range of graft transmissible pathogens (GTPs) of viral, viroid and phytoplasma etiology affect apple trees resulting in diseases with adverse effects in orchards around the globe. The significance of diseases caused by these GTPs on tree health, fruit shape and quality has resulted in the imposition of legislation based quarantine measures at both domestic and international front. Losses resulting from viruses in apple often remain unnoticed as the impact of these pathogens on productivity is evident over a period of time. Out of all the viruses infecting apple, ilarviruses infecting apple are of utmost importance because of their worldwide occurrence and latent nature in a number of hosts. Since effective management strategies largely depend on the correct identification of diseases and their etiological agents, diagnosis and detection are the most important aspects of managing viruses in an economically viable apple production system. Early detection of viruses in the propagative material is a pre-requisite for checking their effective spread and to guarantee a sustainable fruit production system. Many quarantine programs are in place to reduce inter-continental spread of viruses during international exchange of germplasm. All these phytosanitary measures are overseen by governments based on agreements produced by international organizations. Additionally, certification schemes applied to fruit trees allow the production of planting material of known variety and plant health status for local growers by controlling the propagation of pathogen-tested mother plants. They ensure to obtain propagative material not only free of quarantine organisms under the national legislation but also of important non-quarantine pathogens. Research carried out on the description of ilarviruses (the most important viruses associated with apple industry) with respect to their geographical distribution, taxonomic position, virion properties, host range, symptomatology, transmission, detection and certification schemes for the production of virus indexed elite planting material of apple has been reviewed and discussed in the preceding paragraphs.

Keywords: Graft transmissible pathogens (GTPs), Apple

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How to cite this article:

Shelly Kapoor, Abhilasha Sharma, Bunty Shylla and Anil Handa. 2018. Ilarviruses and the Importance of Certified Elite Planting Material in Apple Production System - An Overview.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(4): 2444-2462. doi:
Copyright: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.