International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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Original Research Articles                      Volume : 13, Issue:3, March, 2024

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : /
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2024.13(3): 176-189

Effect of Sewage-Contaminated Irrigation Water on the Bacterial Quality of Ready-To-Eat Fresh Vegetables; Watercress (Eruca sativa) and Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
1Microbial Biotechnology Department, Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt, 12622
2Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research and Climate Changes Institute, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt, 12622
3Center of Microbiology and Phage Therapy, Biomedical Sciences Department, Zewail City of Sciences and Technology, Giza, Egypt, 12587
*Corresponding author

In Egypt, some people illegally dump untreated sewage into irrigation canals. Farmers use these polluted canals and the water from the Bahr El-Baqar drain to irrigate farmlands. The bacterial content of irrigation water, agricultural soil, and ready-to-eat vegetables gathered from farmlands was evaluated. Watercress (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were selected since they are major ready-to-eat vegetables in most Egyptian households and restaurants. A total of 80 samples (20 irrigation water, 20 farmland soil, 20 watercress, and 20 lettuce) were collected from four farmlands irrigated with partially treated sewage from the Bahr El-Baqar drain. Another 80 similar samples were collected from farmlands irrigated with canals polluted with illegally dumped untreated sewage. The efficacy of four different watercress and lettuce washing methods was also assessed. E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella sp. showed significant survival on watercress and lettuce for over 15 days. Regardless of the tested washing strategies, a vinegar-based washing strategy can reduce bacterial levels. In conclusion, using irrigation water polluted with untreated or partially treated sewage contaminated the ready-to-eat fresh vegetables with pathogenic bacteria, which is considered a high risk to human health.

Keywords: Fecal coliform, Pathogenic bacteria, Ready-to-eat vegetables, Watercress, Lettuce, Potential risk


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How to cite this article:

Shimaa R. Hamed, Raed S. Al-Wasify, Samar Ragab and Aya A. Abd-Elrahim. 2024. Effect of Sewage-Contaminated Irrigation Water on the Bacterial Quality of Ready-To-Eat Fresh Vegetables; Watercress (Eruca sativa) and Lettuce (Lactuca sativa).Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 13(3): 176-189. doi:
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