International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020)
[Effective from January 1, 2020]
For more details click here

ICV 2019: 96.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2019 - IJCMAS--ICV 2019: 96.39
For more details click here

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PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
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Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2020.9(9): 3723-3728

Metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiology and Consequences
Anugya Bharti* and Archana Kushwaha
Department of Foods and Nutrition, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand – 263145, India
*Corresponding author

The metabolic syndrome refers to the co-occurrence of or clustering of several known cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction. These conditions are interrelated and share underlying mechanisms and pathways. It identifies a subgroup of patients with shared pathophysiology who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type II diabetes. Various definitions for metabolic syndrome were given but NCEP ATP III definition is one of the most widely used criteria of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance affects Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway whereas Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway remains unaffected. This results in hyperglycemia and reduced nitric oxide production leading to endothelial dysfunction. Excess abdominal obesity is associated with a potentially atherogenic lipoprotein profile, hyperinsulinemia, releases of nonesterified fatty acids and reduced levels of adiponectin. All these features of the metabolic syndrome leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic vascular disease, particularly coronary artery disease and PCOS (Polycystic ovarian syndrome). Sympathetic hyperactivity, leptin resistance, insulin resistance or rennin angiotensin aldosterone system hyperactivation leads to increased anti –natriuretic effect and thus, may contribute towards hypertension in obese individuals. Insulin resistance also leads to PCOS by increasing level of GnRH (Gonadotrophin releasing hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone), increases ACTH and adrenal cortex stimulation and reducing the level of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Thus, by considering the central features of the metabolic syndrome and how they are related, we may be able to better understand the pathophysiology that links them with each other and with the increased risk of CVD and other diseases.

Keywords: Insulin resistance, Abdominal adiposity, Atherogenic dyslipidemia and Endothelial dysfunction
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How to cite this article:

Anugya Bharti and Archana Kushwaha. 2020. Metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiology and Consequences.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(9): 3723-3728. doi: